Diesel cycle Main article: Diesel cycle P-v Diagram for the Ideal Diesel cycle. The cycle follows the numbers 1?4 in clockwise direction. Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a cycle reminiscent of a four-stroke cycle, but with a compression heating ignition system, rather than needing a separate ignition system. This variation is called the diesel cycle. In the diesel cycle, diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder so that combustion occurs at constant pressure, as the piston moves. Otto cycle: Otto cycle is the typical cycle for most of the cars internal combustion engines, that work using gasoline as a fuel. Otto cycle is exactly the same one that was described for the four-stroke engine. It consists of the same four major steps: Intake, compression, ignition and exhaust. PV diagram for Otto cycle On the PV-diagram, 1?2: Intake: suction stroke 2?3: Isentropic Compression stroke 3?4: Heat addition stroke 4?5: Exhaust stroke (Isentropic expansion) 5?2: Heat rejection The distance between points 1?2 is the stroke of the engine.By dividing V2/V1, we get: r, where r is called the compression ratio of the engine.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engineAutonomous control implies good performance under significant uncertainties in the environment for extended periods of time and the ability to compensate for system failures without external intervention.8 As can be seen from many projects mentioned, it is often suggested to extend the capabilities of an autonomous car by implementing communication networks both in the immediate vicinity (for collision avoidance) and far away (for congestion management). By bringing in these outside influences in the decision process, some would no longer regard the car's behaviour or capabilities as autonomous; for example Wood et al. (2012) writes "This Article generally uses the term "autonomous," instead of the term "automated." The term "autonomous" was chosen because it is the term that is currently in more widespread use (and thus is more familiar to the general public). However, the latter term is arguably more accurate. "Automated" connotes control or operation by a machine, while "autonomous" connotes acting alone or independently. Most of the vehicle concepts (that we are currently aware of) have a person in the driver?s seat, utilize a communication connection to the Cloud or other vehicles, and do not independently select either destinations or routes for reaching them.
Autonomous car vs automated - from WikipediaAutonomous means having the power for self-governance.8 Many historical projects related to vehicle autonomy have in fact only been automated (made to be automatic) due to a heavy reliance on artificial hints in their environment, such as magnetic strips.
Thus, the term "automated" would more accurately describe these vehicle concepts".9 Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_car
The necessary high voltage, typically 10,000 volts, is supplied by an induction coil or transformer. The induction coil is a fly-back system, using interruption of electrical primary system current through some type of synchronized interrupter..The interrupter can be either contact points or a power transistor.
The problem with this type of ignition is that as RPM increases the available of electrical energy decreases.This is especially as problem since the amount of energy needed to ignite a more dense fuel mixture is higher.The result was often a high rpm misfire. Capacitor discharge ignition was developed.
It produces a rising voltage that is sent to the spark plug.CD system voltages can reach 60,000 volts.19 CD ignitions use step-up transformers. The step-up transformer uses energy stored in a capacitance to generate electric spark. With either system, a mechanical or electrical control system provides a carefully timed high-voltage to the proper cylinder. This spark, via the spark plug, ignites the air-fuel mixture in the engine's cylinders. While gasoline internal combustion engines are much easier to start in cold weather than diesel engines, they can still have cold weather starting problems under extreme conditions.For years the solution was to park the car in heated areas.In some parts of the world the oil was actually drained and heated over night and returned to the engine for cold starts.
In the early 1950s the gasoline Gasifier unit was developed, where, on cold weather starts, raw gasoline was diverted to the unit where part of the fuel was burned causing the other part to become a hot vapor sent directly to the intake valve manifold.This unit was quite popular until electric engine block heaters became standard on gasoline engines sold in cold climates.20Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine